The EPA concludes that "local and state governments can add urban heat island mitigation strategies in policies or regulations, ranging from purchasing guidelines to building codes. A number of these actions have helped remove barriers or provide incentives for implementing mitigation strategies. Others have prescribed minimum requirements, especially for new construction… Communities are considering urban forestry and cool roofs, in particular, as technologies that can help."
The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHI) provides a wealth of information regarding preparing for and dealing with the public health threat of intense heat. They provide an interesting graphic outlining the "interactions among climate drivers, environmental and institutional context, social and behavioral context, exposure pathways, and health outcomes," here:
The NIHHI provides the following explanation:
Another EPA guide outlines specific tools that planners can use to project the most vulnerable populations in urban areas.
The above referenced page is a worthwhile resource for further research.